CCNA – Basic Questions
Organizational Unique Identifier (OUI) is the first 24 bits of a MAC address for a network device, which indicates the specific vendor for that device as assigned by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Incorporated (IEEE). This identifier uniquely identifies a vendor, manufacturer, or an organization.
Only router can break up broadcast domains so in the exhibit there are 2 broadcast domains: from e0 interface to the left is a broadcast domain and from e1 interface to the right is another broadcast domain -> A is correct.
Both router and switch can break up collision domains so there is only 1 collision domain on the left of the router (because hub doesn’t break up collision domain) and there are 6 collision domains on the right of the router (1 collision domain from e1 interface to the switch + 5 collision domains for 5 PCs in Production) -> F is correct.
From the exhibit we learn there are 4585552 bytes (over 4MB) available so it is only enough space for an IOS file of 4MB. If bigger file is copied then the existing IOS file will be erased (overwritten).
The Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) defines the maximum Layer 3 packet (in bytes) that the layer can pass onwards.
Modern Ethernet networks built with switches and full-duplex connections no longer utilize CSMA/CD. CSMA/CD is only used in obsolete shared media Ethernet (which uses repeater or hub).
Ethernet network is a shared environment so all devices have the right to access to the medium. If more than one device transmits simultaneously, the signals collide and can not reach the destination.
If a device detects another device is sending, it will wait for a specified amount of time before attempting to transmit.
When there is no traffic detected, a device will transmit its message. While this transmission is occurring, the device continues to listen for traffic or collisions on the LAN. After the message is sent, the device returns to its default listening mode.
So we can see C and D are the correct answers. But in fact “answer C – when they detect no other devices are sending” and “when the medium is idle” are nearly the same.
Physical addresses or MAC addresses are used to identify devices at layer 2 -> A is correct.
MAC addresses are only used to communicate on the same network. To communicate on different network we have to use Layer 3 addresses (IP addresses) -> B is not correct; E is correct.
Layer 2 frame and Layer 3 packet can be recognized via headers. Layer 3 packet also contains physical address -> C is not correct.
On Ethernet, each frame has the same priority to transmit by default -> D is not correct.
All devices need a physical address to identify itself. If not, they can not communicate -> F is not correct.
The following locations can be configured as a source for the IOS image:
+ Flash (the default location)
+ TFTP server
+ ROM (used if no other source is found)
When you turn the router on, it runs through the following boot process.
The Power-On Self Test (POST) checks the router’s hardware. When the POST completes successfully, the System OK LED indicator comes on.
The router checks the configuration register to identify where to load the IOS image from. A setting of 0×2102 means that the router will use information in the startup-config file to locate the IOS image. If the startup-config file is missing or does not specify a location, it will check the following locations for the IOS image:
1. Flash (the default location)
2. TFTP server
3. ROM (used if no other source is found)
The router loads the configuration file into RAM (which configures the router). The router can load a configuration file from:
+ NVRAM (startup-configuration file)
+ TFTP server
If a configuration file is not found, the router starts in setup mode.