Home > Gateway Load Balancing Protocol GLBP Tutorial

Gateway Load Balancing Protocol GLBP Tutorial

May 4th, 2014 Go to comments

The main disadvantage of HSRP and VRRP is that only one gateway is elected to be the active gateway and used to forward traffic whilst the rest are unused until the active one fails. Gateway Load Balancing Protocol (GLBP) is a Cisco proprietary protocol and performs the similar function to HSRP and VRRP but it supports load balancing among members in a GLBP group. In this tutorial, we will learn how GLBP works.

Note: Although we can partially configure load balancing via HSRP or VRRP using multiple groups but we have to assign different default gateways on the hosts. If one group fails, we must reconfigure the default gateways on the hosts, which results in extra administrative burden.

GLBP Election

When the routers are configured to a GLBP group, they first elect one gateway to be the Active Virtual Gateway (AVG) for that group. The election is based on the priority of each gateway (highest priority wins). If all of them have the same priority then the gateway with the highest real IP address becomes the AVG. The AVG, in turn, assigns a virtual MAC address to each member of the GLBP group. Each gateway which is assigned a virtual MAC address is called Active Virtual Forwarder (AVF). A GLBP group only has a maximum of four AVFs. If there are more than 4 gateways in a GLBP group then the rest will become Standby Virtual Forwarder (SVF) which will take the place of a AVF in case of failure. The virtual MAC address in GLBP is 0007.b400.xxyy where xx is the GLBP group number and yy is the different number of each gateway (01, 02, 03…).

Note:
+ In this tutorial, the words “gateway” and “router” are use interchangeable. In fact, GLBP can run on both router and switch so the word “gateway”, which can represent for both router and switch, is better to describe GLBP.
+ For switch, GLBP is supported only on Cisco 4500 and 6500 series.

The gateway with the highest priority among the remaining ones is elected the Standby AVG (SVG) which will take the role of the AVG in the case it is down.

GLBP_topology.jpg

For example in the topology above suppose all of the gateways have the same priority and GLBP is turned on at the same time on all gateways (or they are configured with the preempt feature), R4 will be elected AVG because of its highest IP address 10.10.10.4. R3 will be elected SVG because of its second highest IP address (10.10.10.3). The AVFs are elected based on the weight so the four highest weight values would win for the four AVFs. In this case we only have four gateways so surely they are all elected AVFs. With GLBP, there is still one virtual IP address which is assigned by the administrator via the “glbp ip …” command (for example glbp 1 ip 10.10.10.100).

How GLBP works

GLBP_topology_works.jpg

After the election ends, R4 is both the AVG and AVF; R3 is SVG and AVF; R2 & R1 are pure AVFs. R4 assigned the MAC addresses of 0007.b4000101, 0007.b4000102, 0007.b4000103, 0007.b4000104 to R1, R2, R3, R4 respectively; we will abbreviate the MAC addresses as 01, 02, 03 and 04. Let’s see how GLBP works!

The default gateway of PC1, PC2 and PC3 were set to 10.10.10.100 so if they want to send traffic outside they have to send ARP Request first to their default gateway. They broadcast an ARP Request to ask “Hey, I need to know the MAC address of the guy 10.10.10.100!”. R4, which is the AVG, is responsible for answering the ARP Request. But the trick here is it does not always give the same answer to that question:

For PC1, R4 will answer “The MAC address of the guy 10.10.10.100 is 01!”.
For PC2, R4 will answer “The MAC address of the guy 10.10.10.100 is 02!”.
For PC3, R4 will answer “The MAC address of the guy 10.10.10.100 is 03!”.
For PC4, R4 will answer “The MAC address of the guy 10.10.10.100 is 04!”.

As the result of this, PC1 will send the traffic to R1; PC2 will send traffic to R2; PC3 will send traffic to R3 and PC4 will send traffic to R4! And load balancing is achieved!

When AVG fails

Everything is working smoothly then suddenly R4 (AVG) is down. What will happen now?

As we know R3 was chosen as SVG because of its second highest priority so when R4 is down, R3 becomes the new AVG and is responsible for forwarding traffic sent to the virtual MAC address of R4. In other words, R3 is now responsible for traffic from PC3 & PC4 with two MAC addresses 03, 04. Communication between R4 continues without disruption or change at the host side.

GLBP_topology_AVG_fails.jpg

Wait! Maybe you have a question to ask here. So how about the Switch? How can the switch forward the frames to the new SVG on another port? Remember that Switch saved the MAC 04 for the port connecting to R4. Well, the answer here is when the standby becomes the active it will send a gratuitous ARP reply to flush the CAM tables of the switches and the ARP cache of the hosts. So the switch will learn the new port for MAC 04.

Each AVF listens to others, if one AVF can no more forward traffic, all listening AVFs will compete to take the responsibility of the failed AVF vMAC along with its own (AVF with higher weighting wins).

To detect a gateway failure, GLBP members communicate between each other through hello messages sent every 3 seconds to the multicast address 224.0.0.102, User Datagram Protocol (UDP) port 3222.

GLBP supports up to 1024 virtual routers (GLBP groups) per physical interface of a router.

Load balancing algorithm

GLBP load sharing is done in one of three ways:

Round-robin load-balancing algorithm: Each router MAC is used sequentially to respond to ARP requests. This is the default load balancing mode in GLBP and is suitable for any number of end hosts.
Weighted load-balancing algorithm
: Traffic is balanced proportional to a configured weight. Each GLBP router in the group will advertise its weighting and assignment; the AVG will act based on that value. For example, if there are two routers in a group and R1 has double the forwarding capacity of router B, the weighting value of router A should be configured to be double the amount of R2.
Host-dependent load-balancing algorithm: A given host always uses the same router.

Interface Tracking

Like HSRP, GLBP can be configured to track interfaces. For example, if the WAN link from Router R4 is lost, GLBP detects the failure and decrements the router priority (when a tracked interface fails). The second router then becomes primary. This transition is transparent for the hosts.

GLBP_Interface_Tracking.jpg

GLBP Authentication

GLBP has three authentication types:
+ No authentication
+ MD5 authentication
+ Plain text authentication

MD5 is the most security method so far. With this method, the same keys are configured on both ends. One end will send the encrypted key (called hash, using MD5) to the other. At the other side, the same key is also encrypted and compared with the receiving encrypted key. If the two encrypted keys are the same then authentication is approved. The advantage of this method is only the encrypted key is sent through the link. The key for the MD5 hash can either be given directly in the configuration using a key string or supplied indirectly through a key chain.

Comments (50) Comments
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  1. HAMMAD HASSAN
    May 10th, 2014

    nice explanation…

  2. Dinesh Kumar Yadav
    May 13th, 2014

    Very nice, clear and Mucil explanation.. thnks 9tut

  3. Jairo
    May 18th, 2014

    Fantastic explanation! 9tut is the best place for CCNA students.

  4. Anuradha
    May 25th, 2014

    best explanation…

  5. Donald
    May 27th, 2014

    Wonderful Explanation. Thanks for 9tut.

  6. Xpektro GzN
    May 29th, 2014

    Excellent, very precise with no extra unnecessary information, just what one would need to understand the concept how GLBP works, hours earlier I was CLUELESS as to how this protocol works, heck I had even forgotten what the acronyms stands for, but with this summary I was able to refresh my mind and now I posses a solid concept, that I will use when answering the questions once I take the ICDN – 200 120, Now moving on to the commands…

    Thanks You 9Tut.

  7. Cristina
    May 29th, 2014

    I swear to God i had my ccna 2 years ago but each time i come here to study stuff about my work or when i have an interview

  8. Trod
    June 17th, 2014

    Excellent easy explanation!!
    Will be studying 9tut to prepare for a phone interview this week. Thanks 9tut.

  9. john
    June 21st, 2014

    awesome explanation

  10. Ahmed
    June 24th, 2014

    Thanks alot 9tut

  11. HUNTER
    July 18th, 2014

    really really good explanation…..you deserved to write a mini-book of these tutorials you write…as it is made so simple to understand. To al ccna students, if you want to pass your CCNA, learn proper CCNA concepts and you’ll be able to work any questions…..learn concept is the best way, even for interviews it will be useful to you, as once you remember it, get the logic, it will stay forever.

  12. valentine
    July 24th, 2014

    Its a total sumary anyone can ask for. Thanks to 9tut and sucess to all preparing for CCNA.

  13. vuoke
    July 29th, 2014

    thanks 9tut…

  14. Ali M
    August 4th, 2014

    Thanks 9tut, very good explanation

  15. ali
    August 5th, 2014

    Excellent explanation ever!
    thanks a lot 9tut

  16. Alex
    August 6th, 2014

    Great. Thanks

  17. Saeed
    August 12th, 2014

    Does anyone know such (9tut like) site for vmware VCP?

  18. Malik_7867
    August 15th, 2014

    Thanks Everyone.

  19. Ernesto
    August 17th, 2014

    I want to thank to all of you 9tut for your extraordinary job, and also say to you that your work is excelent. Your Tutorials are the best so far!! Thanks!

  20. Surender
    August 22nd, 2014

    Nice Explanation with a Good examples. Thank U..

  21. Ahmed Basim
    August 30th, 2014

    Thanks a lot

  22. Anojh
    August 31st, 2014

    Thanks 9tut for sharing learning resources and providing very good tutorials !
    pls share recent dumps ! anojhsna@gmail.com

  23. milind
    September 1st, 2014

    very clear to understand, should have basic configuration also .

  24. ALI
    September 3rd, 2014

    thanks to 9tut

  25. ayyaz
    September 3rd, 2014

    very good info.

  26. Haseeb
    September 3rd, 2014

    very good info

  27. ayyaz
    September 3rd, 2014

    GLBP is explained very nicely.

  28. Haseeb
    September 3rd, 2014

    GLBP is explained very nicely.

  29. amandi
    October 7th, 2014

    nice explenation thanks!!!!!!!!!!

  30. bhavin
    October 8th, 2014

    good & understandable info

  31. Faisal
    October 21st, 2014

    Excellent and easy explanation. There is nothing one can not understand. Love you 9tut.

  32. AlehT
    October 27th, 2014

    Not bad

  33. Anonymous
    November 5th, 2014

    9tut does a great job of simplifying the topic at hand. Thank you.

  34. bromand
    November 7th, 2014

    A special tanx from all member of 9tut solo thank u

  35. sj
    November 19th, 2014

    gut!

  36. 21thunder
    November 24th, 2014

    Excellent explanation, great job 9tut!

  37. james
    November 25th, 2014

    You have been always very helpful 9tut. you explained the info. to a level that can understand easily.

    whoever behind 9tut

    We thank you so much. :)

  38. odenZ0
    November 25th, 2014

    If there is anything i ever looked for soooooooooooooo much in life, it was what to do for our default gateway since we have four links to the internet but when i landed on this, i got a salary increment because all my predecessors had failed to do this they could be flipping DHCP settings to accommodate the available links!!!!!!!!!!!!!! am a pro now. thumbs up to 9tut….

    ************Big up from Uganda**************

  39. Sami
    November 26th, 2014

    Wonderful explanation, its very easy to understand

  40. Aurangzeb
    December 3rd, 2014

    Well done 9tut…..

  41. Anand Dhouni
    December 10th, 2014

    Very nice Explanation.. thanks for that

  42. Hari Prasad
    January 2nd, 2015

    Thanks for sharing perfect information related to the topices.

    Thanks to all 9tut team…..

  43. Vivek
    January 4th, 2015

    Hi 9tut,
    Plz explain how to configure the same

  44. Trekker15
    January 9th, 2015

    @Vivek…this is just the basic…

    (config-if)#glbp 1 ip 192.168.1.7
    ###the 1 in the command is the Group #. The ip address is the virtual gateway###

    (config-if)#glbp 1 priority 110
    ###priority is default at 100 but you can configure it to be a higher or lower number###

    There are other commands for authentication, preemption, weighting and tracking…

  45. Trekker15
    January 9th, 2015

    also, use “#sh glbp” to see the resulting output:

    R1#sh glbp
    Ethernet0/0 – Group 1
    State is Active
    2 state changes, last state change 00:04:19
    Virtual IP address is 192.168.1.7
    Hello time 3 sec, hold time 10 sec
    Next hello sent in 1.317 secs
    Redirect time 600 sec, forwarder time-out 14400 sec
    Preemption disabled
    Active is local
    Standby is 192.168.1.2, priority 100 (expires in 8.273 sec)
    Priority 110 (configured)
    Weighting 100 (default 100), thresholds: lower 1, upper 100
    Load balancing: round-robin
    Group members:
    c801.5a44.0000 (192.168.1.1) local
    c802.4618.0000 (192.168.1.2)
    c803.5a9c.0000 (192.168.1.3)
    c804.50fc.0000 (192.168.1.4)
    There are 4 forwarders (1 active)
    Forwarder 1
    State is Active
    1 state change, last state change 00:04:09
    MAC address is 0007.b400.0101 (default)
    Owner ID is c801.5a44.0000
    Redirection enabled
    Preemption enabled, min delay 30 sec
    Active is local, weighting 100
    Forwarder 2
    State is Listen
    MAC address is 0007.b400.0102 (learnt)
    Owner ID is c802.4618.0000
    Redirection enabled, 599.355 sec remaining (maximum 600 sec)
    Time to live: 14399.355 sec (maximum 14400 sec)
    Preemption enabled, min delay 30 sec
    Active is 192.168.1.2 (primary), weighting 100 (expires in 9.351 sec)
    Forwarder 3
    State is Listen
    MAC address is 0007.b400.0103 (learnt)
    Owner ID is c803.5a9c.0000
    Redirection enabled, 597.228 sec remaining (maximum 600 sec)
    Time to live: 14397.228 sec (maximum 14400 sec)
    Preemption enabled, min delay 30 sec
    Active is 192.168.1.3 (primary), weighting 100 (expires in 7.228 sec)
    Forwarder 4
    State is Listen
    MAC address is 0007.b400.0104 (learnt)
    Owner ID is c804.50fc.0000
    Redirection enabled, 597.504 sec remaining (maximum 600 sec)
    Time to live: 14397.504 sec (maximum 14400 sec)
    Preemption enabled, min delay 30 sec
    Active is 192.168.1.4 (primary), weighting 100 (expires in 7.500 sec)

  46. ICND2_test
    January 10th, 2015

    Great tutorial. Thanks :)

  47. Nawras
    January 24th, 2015

    it’s really easy way to explain the main protocol concepts and functionality
    thanks a lot

  48. Petroto
    February 13th, 2015

    Where is VRRP tut?

  49. khalid arshad
    February 20th, 2015

    this is most amazing and helpfull thanks 9tut

  50. Anonymous
    February 23rd, 2015

    hi, this is the best tutorial ever

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