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IP Routing

November 7th, 2018 Go to comments

Question 1

Explanation

When one route is advertised by more than one routing protocol, the router will choose to use the routing protocol which has lowest Administrative Distance. The Administrative Distances of popular routing protocols are listed below:

EIGRP_Administrative Distances_popular_routing_protocols.jpg

Question 2

Explanation

The simple syntax of static route:

ip route destination-network-address subnet-mask {next-hop-IP-address | exit-interface}
+ destination-network-address: destination network address of the remote network
+ subnet mask: subnet mask of the destination network
+ next-hop-IP-address: the IP address of the receiving interface on the next-hop router
+ exit-interface: the local interface of this router where the packets will go out

In the statement “ip route 192.168.0.0 255.255.240.0 GigabitEthernet0/1″:

+ 192.168.0.0 255.255.240.0: the destination network
+ GigabitEthernet0/1: the exit-interface

Question 3

Question 4

Explanation

The static routing specifies a fixed destination so it is “consistent”. It is best used for small-scaled places where there are a few routers only. When links fail, static route cannot automatically find an alternative path like dynamic routing so routing is disrupted.

Question 5

Explanation

Host Z will use ARP to get the MAC address of the interface on R1 that connects to it and use this MAC as the destination MAC address. It use the IP address of the storage server as the destination IP address.

For example in the topology below, host A will use the MAC address of E0 interface of the router as its destination MAC address to reach the Email Server.

destination_addresses.jpg

Question 6

Explanation

The Administrative Distance (AD) of popular routing protocols is shown below. You should learn them by heart:

EIGRP_Administrative Distances_popular_routing_protocols.jpg

Note: The AD of iBGP is 200

The smaller the AD is, the better it is. The router will choose the routing protocol with smallest AD.

In this case EIGRP with AD of 90 is the smallest one.

Question 7

Question 8

Question 9

Explanation

The Layer 2 information (source and destination MAC) would be changed when passing through each router. The Layer 3 information (source and destination IP addresses) remains unchanged.

Question 10

Question 11

Comments (28) Comments
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  1. hussein panahi
    January 15th, 2018

    question #4 was in our exam

  2. Gregory
    January 20th, 2018

    Question 4: Why C is among the correct answers ? The confusing point is that when a static route fails (AD 1) because the link fails for example, if also a routing protocol is enabled (e.g EIGRP with AD 90) then re-routing to the destination could happen based on the routing protocol I guess. Thus, the answer “C. Routing is disrupted when links fail” from my point of view is not that right.

    Can some experienced one comment on that and tell me if I understand something wrong or the answer C is a bit controversial ?

  3. Matthew
    February 13th, 2018

    Herieta,

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    February 13th, 2018

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    February 28th, 2018

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  6. Tony
    March 19th, 2018

    Question #8
    Which component of a routing table entry represents the subnet mask?
    A. routing protocol code
    B. prefix
    C. metric
    D. network mask

    Answer is network mask but there is no such entry in ” routing table.” I believe the best answer is prefix. We won’t see network mask 255.255.255.0 but will see /24 in routing table.

    I find the reference from Cisco : https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/ip/enhanced-interior-gateway-routing-protocol-eigrp/8651-21.html Under the paragraph of the Prefix Length, there is a statement : ….as a different prefix length (subnet mask)…

  7. 2pacs
    March 26th, 2018

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  8. Charice :)
    April 12th, 2018

    who has written the exam recently

  9. Flows
    April 18th, 2018

    Hi Guys

    Which component of a routing table entry represents the subnet mask?
    A. routing protocol code
    B. prefix
    C. metric
    D. network mask

    9tut answer is D
    I considered B. Can anyone explain this?

  10. gaurav4u
    April 26th, 2018

    @gregory The question only says that If static routing is enabled then what would be the consequences, it does not mention that Dynamic routing like EIGRP has also been enabled. So if only Static routing is there on the router then Routing will get disrupted on a link failure. Option ‘C’ is correct!!

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    May 5th, 2018

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    May 5th, 2018

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  13. Sinix
    May 9th, 2018

    Q8 answer D is incorrect. CORRECT answer is B(prefix).

    This is how the routing table is displayed, and there is no subnet mask(x.x.x.x) being depicted. It clearly shows the mask prefix(/x).

    Gateway of last resort is not set

    10.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 2 masks
    C 10.0.0.0/24 is directly connected, GigabitEthernet0/0
    L 10.0.0.1/32 is directly connected, GigabitEthernet0/0
    D 10.1.0.0/24 [90/130816] via 10.0.0.2, 00:00:15, GigabitEthernet0/0

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    May 10th, 2018

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    May 17th, 2018

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    July 11th, 2018

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    August 9th, 2018

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    October 15th, 2018

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    November 8th, 2018

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  22. MJ
    November 11th, 2018

    Q8 Explanation:
    Explanation:
    IP Routing Table Entry TypesAn entry in the IP routing table contains the following information in the order presented:
    Network ID. The network ID or destination corresponding to the route. The network ID can be class-based, subnet, or supernet network ID, or an IP address for a host route. Network Mask.
    The mask that is used to match a destination IP address to the network ID.
    Next Hop. The IP address of the next hop.
    Interface. An indication of which network interface is used to forward the IP packet. Metric. A number used to indicate the cost of the route so the best route among possible multiple routes to the same destination can be selected. A common use of the metric is to indicate the number of hops (routers crossed) to the network ID. Routing table entries can be used to store the following types of routes:
    Directly Attached Network IDs. Routes for network IDs that are directly attached. For directly attached networks, the Next Hop field can be blank or contain the IP address of the interface on that network.
    Remote Network IDs. Routes for network IDs that are not directly attached but are available across other routers. For remote networks, the Next Hop field is the IP address of a local router in between the forwarding node and the remote network. Host Routes. A route to a specific IP address. Host routes allow routing to occur on a per- IP address basis. For host routes, the network ID is the IP address of the specified host and the network mask is 255.255.255.255. Default Route. The default route is designed to be used when a more specific network ID or host route is not found. The default route network ID is 0.0.0.0 with the network mask of 0.0.0.0.

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    December 26th, 2018

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    August 25th, 2019

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    August 25th, 2019

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    August 29th, 2019

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  27. Dadan
    October 23rd, 2019

    Question 8:

    In the routing table Network masks are represented by prefixes. Example: 192.168.1.0/24 – the prefix here is 24 and it represents the subnet mask 255.255.255.0

    Correct answer is: B

  28. Lywa
    January 9th, 2020

    Question 8:

    I would also think, that the correct answer is B, because in the routing table there are no network masks. There are Prefixes. But nearly on all Websites with this question, D is written to be the correct answer?!

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